6·THCs and their Metabolites 199
0- "< Seltzrnan, Y This established the
stereochemistry of cannabielsoin at C-l so as to conform to structure 152 as.
Briefly, when psychologists and psychiatrists began copying the methods of the physical sciences, they
took up the idea of the neutral observer, whose presence did not itself affect the experiment. It is now
clear, however, that an experimenter, in addition to his formal instructions, which are available for
public assessment, makes all sorts of covert, implicit demands on his subjects to perform in a certain
manner. These demands are not open to public examination and so cannot be fully evaluated for their
effect on any given experiment. Particularly, the experimenter frequently has an a priori belief or
hypothesis as to how an experiment should turn out, and this belief can be covertly communicated to the
subjects. Since subjects are there to "help science," they often modify their behavior or
experiences—unconsciously, semiconsciously, or consciously—to do the "right" thing (or the "wrong"
thing if they are in a negative mood). I believe we shall see a major reformulation of the methods of the
social and psychological sciences in the next decade as we realize that experimenters interact with
subjects, that they are themselves one of the variables in the experiment, and that science is a human
activity. The bases for this change are nicely summarized in Kuhn (1962), Lyons (1971), Maslow
(1966), Polanyi (1958), and Rosenthal (1966).
Most of the scientific literature on LSD demonstrates the effect of experimenter bias. Researchers
who believed that LSD was a "psychotomimetic" constantly reported psychotic-like reactions among
their subjects. Researchers who believed LSD was mind-expanding or psychedelic saw these beliefs
confirmed. Both groups were partially right. What they did not realize was that they had unconsciously
acted in ways to make their beliefs come true. They both demonstrated some of the potential effects of
LSD, but were mistaken in thinking they had demonstrated pure drug effects or invariant effects.
Selective Amplification, Inhibition, Interaction
None of the above factors affects the intoxicated state in isolation. Some may be important at one
time, others unimportant. Users may choose to concentrate on some of these factors, amplifying their
effect, or try to inhibit others, with varying degrees of success. Some of the factors may interact at a
given time. A cold and sterile setting, an angry or unfriendly experimenter, and a poor mood on the
subject's part can all combine to produce negative effects beyond the subject's ability to control.
The ranges and combinations of these important factors are enormous, which means that the variety of
drug intoxication effects is correspondingly large. We know little about exactly how important some of
these are, or how they interact. Some extreme values of these factors, however, do produce known
For example, suppose we wanted to know how to produce a pleasant marijuana experience or an
unpleasant one. Table 2-1 summarizes some extreme values
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Matsumoto, P 8
215 was obtained from the keto ester 213 and the resorcinol 214
This established the
stereochemistry of cannabielsoin at C-l so as to conform to structure 152 any more frequently. Furthermore,
there appears to be no relationship whatsoever between the amount the respondent smokes
and his likelihood of arrest. Three of our daily smokers had been arrested for "serious"
crimes; three of those who smoked three to six times a week were arrested for these
crimes; three of our one to two times weekly smokers were so arrested, three of the
(23 of 28)4/15/2004 1:08:08 AM
The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 9
respondents who smoked one to four times monthly were arrested, and three of the less
than monthly users were arrested for these crimes. Although these numbers are extremely
small, the fact of their perfect dispersal is perhaps indicative of the lack of a crimeinducing
effect of the drug. It is, at any rate, a proposition which ought to be tested more
systematically in the future with more complete data. For the moment, there are
indications that point to the fact that the marijuana smoker is no more criminal than the
rest of the population.
A Note on the Sociology of Crime
The typical smoker's attitude toward the law cannot be thought of simply as a general
"disrespect for law," that is, any and all laws. Law is not thought of as evil by users simply
because it is law. Certain laws are thought of as good and others as evil. Obviously, the
marijuana laws are rejected as unjust. (Among our respondents, 95 percent wanted to do
away with the marijuana laws.) But simply because "the law is the law" does not make it
just. There is a selectivity accorded to laws. Therefore, this inclination toward greater
deviance in general actually predisposes users to disobey only certain laws. Users do not
question the justice of many laws, particularly laws connected with violence—armed
robbery, rape, mayhem, murder, assault. Others of a political character will be more
readily rejected. As I pointed out, my interviewees were far more likely to commit and be
arrested for crimes connected with political demonstrations than any other type of crime.
Marijuana users are also probably more likely to commit sex crimes than nonusers. Not
sex crimes connected with violence or coercion, such as rape, child molestation, or
exhibitionism; probably not even sexual crimes that result in arrest. But many sexual
activities are criminal: fellatio, cunnilingus, premarital intercourse, adultery, pornography,
abortion, sodomy, homosexuality. There is no doubt in my mind that users are far more
likely to commit these "harmless" sex crimes than nonusers. Their greater willingness to
deviate, to experiment, to disregard conventional sexual mores, probably indicates a more
general unconcern for norms that, they think, are obsolete.
The word "criminal" conjures up in the mind a definite stereotype. When we think of
crime, we generally think of violent crimes. If I had to hazard a guess, I would say that
marijuana users probably commit violent crimes no more than, and possibly less than, the
population at large. But They were discovered106
independently by two groups, Adams and co-workers in the United
States, and Todd and co-workers in Great Britain, in the course of their work on
the structure elucidation of the active constituents of hashish and marijuana Synthesis of cis-THCs
Of the two cis-isomers, that is, cis-fil_THC (3) and cis-li6-THC (4) only 3 has
been found in the plant and that only recently I'm on my 4th crop of Shishkeberry. I've grown topped and untopped. I would say top after the 5th or 6th
internode. Depending on how much room (height) you have. Clip lowest 2 side branches too, as they will
normally not make it to the top of the canopy and won't produce good flowers. If you train the plant right you
will have from 8 to 12 colas per plant. The plant will finish between 2.5 and 3 feet tall. My current grow I tried
growing 2 plants per container and its too crowded. Because Shishke is so bushy/big leaf I would try to grow no
more than 1 plant per sq. foot." - Shishke 38 t>6-THC epoxide 8S (Chart 1 It was shown that the conversion of 3,4cis-
to 3,4-trans-HHCs proceeds with exclusive C4 inversion
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Supportive evidence was also provided, which
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(- )-li1_3 ,4·trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)3 is the main physiologically
active constituent of hashish or charas, which is the resinous exudate from the
female flowers of Cannabis sativa L Introduction 187
(- )-li1_3 ,4·trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)3 is the main physiologically
active constituent of hashish or charas, which is the resinous exudate from the
female flowers of Cannabis sativa L
up or just some of them. Some nutrients
are taken up by the plant and stored within the plant until it needs
more. A top up can be done if you do not want to change the reservoir
totally. If you do not have a PPM meter to calculate this accurately,
simply write down your nutrients mix ratio from day 1. Let’s say we
used 3.5 ml of A and B and C in a 1 liter drum. Now the plant has
drunk 1/2 a liter, now all you need to do is make another liter of 3.5ml
mix in another container and add 1/2 of it to the reservoir. This is one
simple way of doing it, but you are left with a half liter of solution, so
do your math and make a mixing chart so you can mix up different
amounts as needed. Local grow shops will help you most of the time
with any questions that you might have about their products.
CANNABIS AND HYDROPONICS
Growing in hydroponics is not rocket science. It is a simple
process which can vary from system to system depending on what kind
of a set-up you choose. Most of the nutrient mixes are explained
extremely well on the packs. If you follow their instructions and
remember that Cannabis only needs 30%-50% strength nutrients then
you will do just fine.
Over the years Cannabis cultivators have decided to try and
beat the system by building their own systems. There are over 100
different types of systems that can be made by hand at home. Out of
these 100, 15 have proven to be useful for cannabis. One of the more
famous simplest systems is DWC, Deep Water Culture, a.k.a "The
Bubbler". This system is very cheap to put together and yet still
provides excellent growth rates. There is nothing like it for the price.
The bubbler is a rewarding way to grow.
Figure 9.16 - A picture of a Bubbler with a young clone, by Strawdog.
Basically the bubbler is just a bucket with a lid and pump. But
the set-up is so extraordinary that it simply zings the plant into life.
This method can grow a plant from 5 ft. to 8 ft. (if not more), with
plenty of fresh buds as long as it maintained and managed well by you,
Here is a list of what to you need to build the bubbler.
The Bubble Bucket:
(1) Get two 5-Gallon buckets with lids. (Wash it out with bleach)
(2) Get a 6" Net pot.
(3) Cut a hole in lid of bucket so the net pot sits in neatly all the way
(4) Cut a hole in the lid about 2cm in diameter near the rim (the pump
hose goes in here).
(5) Use Black gaffer tape to wrap the pot so it is light proof. (If light
gets in alga will
develop in the water. This is not good.) Wrap the lid as well.
(6) Get a fish-tank pump and air-stone.
(7) Get your medium together - rockwool, clay pebbles etc.
(8) Get the Nutrients and Mixes together.
Figure 9.17 - A close-up of the net pot and lid by Strawdog.
Simply mix your nutrients together in the second bucket. Set
the air-stone in the center on the bottom of the first bucket and hang
the air pump somewhere above the water level on the wall The pyrone 201
was reduced with Red-AI to the triol 202a Acid treatment of 12 gave 1 and 2
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